The Resource Classification, evolution, and phylogeny of the families of Dicotyledons, Aaron Goldberg

Classification, evolution, and phylogeny of the families of Dicotyledons, Aaron Goldberg

Label
Classification, evolution, and phylogeny of the families of Dicotyledons
Title
Classification, evolution, and phylogeny of the families of Dicotyledons
Statement of responsibility
Aaron Goldberg
Creator
Subject
Language
eng
Summary
To some extent classification is subjective. Taxonomists differ in the relative importance they ascribe to particular characters and in the degree of difference between related taxa they deem sufficient to constitute family or ordinal rank. About 1000 dicot family names have been published. Those who have attempted an overview of the system at the family level and above in the last quarter century recognize between 274 and 455 dicot families in 39 to 82 orders. I accept 334 families and 59 orders. In Table 1 I give my ordinal allocation of the families and that of 11 recent authors to indicate where there is agreement and where there are differences to be resolved. I have also constructed a dendrogram to suggest relationships and degree of advancement of the orders.I have written concise, uniform descriptions of all the families of dicots, emphasizing those characters that show trends between families or occur in more than one family. Each family is illustrated by analytical drawings of the flower, fruit, seed and usually inflorescence. Several species are usually used to show the range of major variation within families and trends toward related families.Angiosperms probably arose from gymnosperms, so characters or character states universal in gymnosperms or considered primitive in them would also be considered primitive in angiosperms.My approach to understanding evolutionary trends in characters is to relate them to the ecological factors that might be responsible for them by their selective action. The dicots probably originated under warm temperate conditions favorable for growth. A major evolutionary trend in them has been the gradual development of characters and character states enabling them to cope with dry and hot or cold conditions and colonize generally unfavorable regions.A second major trend has been from wind pollination to progressively better adaptation for insect pollination. The primitive insect pollinated dicots often have flowers with numerous spirally arranged parts; plants having flowers with few, opposite or whorled parts are derived.The floral organs are homologous with leaves. Like leaves the parts were initially separate. The connate and adnate conditions are derived.General character states are primitive; specialized states are derived. In attempting to determine which primitive states are most primitive I considered their occurrence among the families. The fewer the families with a particular primative state, the more primitive the state. This is important in deciding whether a family is low or high on the family tree and the position within its particular order.In accordance with the above rationale, I have constructed a table giving the primitive and derived states for about 100 characters. I also indicate the extent to which I consider the states reversible.To determine a family's phylogeny, it must be compared with other families considered to be close to it. In general, the more characters and character states in common, particularly uncommon ones, the more likely are the subject families to be related. All parts of the plant and many characters should be considered. If a family has more than one state of a character, the state considered primitive for the particular taxon rather than the derived one should be considered in attempting to determine the extant family closest to its ancestor. A descendant has at least one more derived character or character state than its ancestor
Member of
Additional physical form
Also available electronically as a PDF file or files (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader).
Cataloging source
DLC
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
Goldberg, Aaron
Government publication
federal national government publication
Illustrations
illustrations
Index
index present
LC call number
  • QK1
  • QK495.A12
LC item number
.S2747 no. 58
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
  • dictionaries
  • bibliography
Series statement
Smithsonian contributions to botany
Series volume
no. 58
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Dicotyledons
  • Dicotyledons
  • Plants
Label
Classification, evolution, and phylogeny of the families of Dicotyledons, Aaron Goldberg
Link
Instantiates
Publication
Note
Includes index
Bibliography note
Bibliography: p. 309-311
Extent
1 online resource (iii, 314 pages
Form of item
online
Note
  • Elecresource
  • MSRL copy mq3579611 is no. 3 in a vol. with 3 other titles. Bound together subsequent to publication.
Other physical details
illustrations)
Specific material designation
remote
Label
Classification, evolution, and phylogeny of the families of Dicotyledons, Aaron Goldberg
Link
Publication
Note
Includes index
Bibliography note
Bibliography: p. 309-311
Extent
1 online resource (iii, 314 pages
Form of item
online
Note
  • Elecresource
  • MSRL copy mq3579611 is no. 3 in a vol. with 3 other titles. Bound together subsequent to publication.
Other physical details
illustrations)
Specific material designation
remote

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